The world of industry, as we look out upon it, appears to be alive with motion, like a beehive. In the crowded harbor, the busy railroad yard, the noisy steel mill, the bustling department store, we see a ceaseless and bewildering activity. In all this movement and apparent confusion, there is, however, a large degree of order and a pretty regular succession of events which reflects a succession of choices that men are making.
These choices are not always and entirely the result of deliberate and conscious calculation. They are determined in a very great degree by habit or by instinct. Every living creature has a nervous organization of some sort—plants as well as the lowest forms of animals. The chick picks its way out of the shell, and then instinctively by its inborn nature picks at any particle it sees.
It thus adds to its instinctive choice the choice resulting from experience. Every human being starts on his life of choice in just this way, with a fund of natural impulses, a capacity for certain instinctive reactions. The new-born child cries when hungry or uncomfortable, and it does not know in advance the first time what it is crying for. Some food it rejects, other food it takes; and its mere impulse has now become a vague aversion or a vague desire. Very quickly it learns to associate the presence of some object with this or with that choice, and reaches for it, cries for it, giving now a very definite direction to the impulse which it feels.
Feeling directed in this way upon some particular object or action is called desire. As the child grows older, choice becomes vastly more complex, but all human choice is the development of the first simple impulsive acts. The difference in this matter between man and the animals lies in the degree to which the original fund of impulses is strengthened or weakened by experience and training, and is modified by the greater growth of forethought, imagination, and reason. As the man attains his maturity, deliberate calculation enters more and more into the making of choice.
Yet the instinctive and habitual elements of choice continue to be very potent. Tastes change with age, are trained, are influenced by custom, by example, and by suggestions of many kinds, and are given a wider range by wealth, travel, and opportunity. But choice is ruled fundamentally by instinct; one likes what he likes; de gustibus non disputandum est. Choice develops in this way as it is directed upon each of the great classes of things with which man is surrounded; Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] clothing, houses, furniture, horses, automobiles, books, etc.
It operates also upon the actions of the man himself. He reaches out or withdraws his hand; he seeks or he shuns; he labors to make or to destroy, to possess or to get rid of. Now we are not likely to feel a very keen desire for a particular thing unless the supply of it at our disposal is relatively limited. The air which we breathe is essential to life. But the air is all around us, and ordinarily in boundless abundance.
Moreover, we breathe by reflex or automatic action of the muscles without conscious attention. The result is that we do not ordinarily feel a desire for air. But in a crowded room where there is a real scarcity of fresh air relative to our need for it, our desire for a breath of fresh air may become very keen indeed. Under such circumstances the air takes on a very different importance as an object of choice. Our impulsive actions and our thought are directed toward getting it.
The diver in his diving suit must make this his first and most constant interest; the drowning man tragically feels this need. The scarcity which we are now discussing is such a limitation in the number or quantity of objects that not all desires can be met then and there by the amount of goods available. In the numberless cases where some desires are not met or are only partially met, we are under the necessity of making a choice as to which desires shall be met. This involves a choice—and therefore a comparison—among things. If we choose one thing rather than another it is plain that for us the first thing has the greater importance.
For one cause or another instinct, training, experience, imagination, judgment it weighs more in the scale of our choice than the thing which is rejected. Now in our daily life we are constantly making comparisons of this sort Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] between things. Few of us—if any—are able to secure all the things which we desire. We are under the necessity of choosing among the various possibilities. We are, therefore, under the recurring necessity of comparing one thing with another, and in so doing, we assess or estimate one thing in terms of the quantity of the other thing.
Such an expression of the importance of one object of choice in terms of another we may call a valuation. Choice Between Two Objects. A comparison of this sort between things may take the form of a mere vague preference without any exact quantitative expression of the degree to which the one thing is more important to us than the other. We prefer one object, X, to another object, Y, without attempting to express even to ourselves the exact strength of the preference.
On the other hand, our valuations may and usually do take the form of definite mathematical ratios. In the early American fur trade, for example, a beaver skin came by convention to be used as a unit in terms of which the relative importance of other things e. The other things were measured as multiples or fractions of the unit.
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Suppose, now, that in a similar way, we were to take a number of things, X, Y, M, N, O, P, and Q taking, of course, a definite amount and grade of each and were to make an exact estimate of their respective degrees of importance. The accompanying diagram may be used to express in a graphic way the mathematical relations of the importance of any one expressed in terms Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of any one of the others.
As a matter of convenience we may settle upon a particular one, Q, as a common unit for expressing or measuring the importance of each of the others in turn. This, in fact, is exactly what the fur-traders did. And we do the same in our use of a monetary unit as our standard for the expression and comparison of the relative importance of things.
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Viewed as the reflection of an act of choice, a valuation of goods appears to be a very simple fact. Yet underlying this simplicity would be found ordinarily a number of complex motives. Each valuation is a focus of many influences, a resultant of many conditions, some in the environment, and some in the nature and in the feeling of man.
According as there is more or less of the various things to choose, and according as the person is more or less hungry or tired or cold or elated or downcast, any particular object may appear to be more or less important, may thus have a greater or less valuation. A valuation involves more than a comparison between external objects. Choice frequently has to be made with reference to the limited strength and time of the subject, his laboring force. Here there is a twofold comparison; a good is compared with the labor required to secure it as well as with another good.
When we are face to face with nature, and goods are to be secured only through our own labor applied to various materials, we are likely to estimate things habitually in terms of our own labor. Labor may under these circumstances become a common unit for the valuation of external things. The economy of Robinson Crusoe serves to illustrate the problems which the individual has to solve when the relation is between man and nature, and not between man and man.
The unfailing interest which old and young find in the story of Crusoe is largely due to the convincing naturalness Edition: current; Page: [ 17 ] of the tale. Each reader feels that he would have done just the same things in just the same order, if he were in the same plight and had been cast ashore as the story relates. I was wet and cold, and had no dry clothes to put on, no food to eat, not a friend to help me.
I had but a knife and a pipe. Where was I to go for the night? I went to a tree and made a kind of nest to sleep in. Then I cut a stick to keep off the beasts of prey in case they should come. The next day. I swam up to the wreck which was in a sand bank. My first thought was to look around for some food. There was, too, some rum, of which I took a good draught, and this gave me heart. I fell to work to make a raft. The next day, as there was still a great store of things left in the ship, which would be of use to me, I thought I ought to bring them to land at once, for I knew that the first storm would break up the ship.
The first thing I sought was the tool-chest; and in it were some bags of nails, spikes, saws, knives, and such things; but best of all I found a stone to grind my tools on. There were two or three flasks, some large bags of shot, and a roll of lead. There were some spare sails too, which I brought to the shore.
The next day I had no great wish for work, but there was too much to be done for me to dwell long on my sad lot. Each day, as it came, I went off to the wreck to fetch more things and I brought back as much as the raft would hold. The last time I swam to the wreck I found some tea and some gold coin; but as to the gold it made me laugh to look at it. I care not to save thee. Stay where thou art till the ship goes down; then go thou with it. I have said not a word of my pets. You may guess how fond I was of them, as they were all the friends left to me.
I brought a dog and two cats from the ship. Altemus, Philadelphia. Crusoe knew not at what moment the waves would sweep Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] into the sea whatever was left. He had scant strength and time for the task. His labor was to be so distributed that he might save from the wrecked ship the most valuable contents. Did he choose well? First, to preserve his life he found a tree to sleep in, and a stick to ward off wild beasts. Then at the ship he took food, clothing, weapons and tools, and made a place to store them safe; and finally came gold and pets.
We see how he ranks them then and there, and how different is the scale from that he had before. His remark about the gold is whimsically suggestive of the old lingering standards of choice, and of the dim hope that he might return to live among men, and thus resume his old scale of values. It is usual to speak of the valuation which a person has or holds or makes of an object as preceding choice; but evidently this is not so in the case of instinctive choice, and many choices have in a measure this impulsive character. In case of a choice of a thing by a person for his own use the valuation is simply the resultant of choice; it is the arithmetic expression necessarily involved in the action and reveals to the person himself what he has done, how he values the object, rather than determines his action.
In a great many business transactions, however, one is not choosing for his own desires, but is trying to forecast the valuations of others to whom he will sell. There is often, in such cases, a long and careful attempt to express in exact figures the relative importance of different objects before a choice is finally made. In other cases the valuations precede the choice, when a conscious calculation is made of the relative effectiveness of things heating power, food-value, etc. This kind of commercial valuation usually precedes choice by merchants.
Now as a choice is made and a valuation is thus expressed, the person choosing feels that there is a certain quality in the thing which evokes or determines his choice. Broadly understood value may be of many kinds: moral the quality in actions calling for approval or disapproval , religious the quality in actions, sentiments, and beliefs reflecting what the persons believe to be the will of the deity , esthetic the quality in objects that accords with the canons of good taste in color, form, sound, etc.
Economic value is but one species of the larger genus of value. We ascribe this quality to the object that motivates our choice. Bread, meat, dress, houses, land, gold, carriages, slaves, the labor of hired servants, each object is said by you to have economic value, just because you feel and know that it sways your behavior in relation to itself. Value in this sense is not inherent or intrinsic in anything; it goes and comes, it grows and wanes, according to the intensity of the desire. It may have existence for one economic subject and not for another. It is not to be thought of as something in a thing before man makes it an object of choice.
The logical order is: first, choice; secondly, a valuation by necessary implication; third, value—the quality imputed to the object.
Yet in real life these are but three phases, absolutely contemporaneous, of the same thing. Value is but the abstract quality which we attach to the thing in our thought, because of the way it makes us behave in its presence. These singly or combined are not value, tho each has its part in determining under varying conditions, whether the apple is to have also the quality of value.
There are as many problems of economic value as there are ways of choosing between economic objects. Their study makes up a large part of economics. Aspects of things chosen. Choice itself has a number of aspects and is made in reference to one or another quality of goods and acts when certain other qualities are for the time equal or may be left out of consideration. The four chief aspects of choice relate to stuff, form, place, and time, as follows: 1 Choice of kinds of things the simplest case being choice among things present and chosen for their immediate use and enjoyment , as choice between different kinds of objects, such as food and clothing, apples and oranges; or again the things may be of the same general kind but of different qualities, as apples differing in sweetness, smoothness, and in color; or the objects may be of different sizes or be in different quantities.
These choices occur in many combinations and degrees of difficulty and complexity. It is a large part of the task of economics to study in detail the large groups of choices which are thus made. Various meanings of scarcity. In economics the idea of scarcity is as is shown above connected with limitation relative to the desire for the objects.
Sometimes it is that Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] of rare, or uncommon which usually, tho not always, implies desirability , as a scarce plant, a scarce butterfly, or a scarce stamp. Value and valuation. The words value and valuation are frequently used interchangeably without much harm; yet for great precision it would usually be better to distinguish between them. This valuation is obtained by multiplying the whole number of units of goods, shares of stock, etc.
This valuation is not to be confused with price; price is an actual amount of money paid, whereas the valuation is an estimate of the total number of dollars for which all the articles could have sold, if they had changed hands at that price. In fact, in many cases, many of them did not change hands at that time.
Inherent physical nature of things. Free goods and economic goods. Harmful objects. Value and true welfare. Gratification of desire. The idea of income. Psychic income. Motivating force of psychic income. The personal equation in psychic income. Desire streams and income streams.
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Goods of direct use. Directness of use defined. Man has to take the physical nature of things as he finds it. He can, to be sure, make certain changes in the relative positions of particles or masses of matter. He can decompose a chemical compound into its elements; he can change iron into steel, and with this construct elaborate machinery; he can make clothing of vegetable fiber; he can cut a canal through an isthmus that united two continents. He can, in short, make many changes in his physical environment and, within limits, he can adjust it to his liking.
But the physical and chemical forces of the world, acting in ways which we express as natural laws, are beyond the power of man to change. He may rise above the earth in a balloon, or even travel through the air in a heavier-than-air machine. But the force of gravitation is acting upon him during every moment of his flight. Material things differ in their specific gravity, in their power to reflect rays of light, or to absorb or transmit heat. They differ also in their chemical qualities. Niter, charcoal, and saltpeter, combined in certain proportions, form an explosive.
Other proportions give other results. Solids combine to form gases and liquids unite to form solids, and these qualities and reactions of material things are for men ultimate truths of chemistry. Sunshine Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] acts on living bodies, whether plant, animal, or man, in certain ways. Some plants are nourishing food for animals, others are poisonous. If man were not living on the earth, things would, so far as we can conclude, have the same physical and chemical qualities, and mechanical laws would be the same as at present.
They are not governed by the will of man. Man can, however—and does—slowly learn the nature of things, and as he does so he makes choices among them, uses them for his purposes, combines, separates, and adapts them so that he may better bring about the results he desires. We have already seen that some things, even such as are indispensable to existence, may yet, because of their abundance, fail to be objects of desire and of choice.
Such things are called free goods. They have no value in the sense in which the economist uses that term. Free goods are things which exist in superfluity; that is, in quantities sufficient not only to gratify but also to satisfy all the desires which may depend upon them. The air about us is ordinarily a good of this kind. Water, too, tho in certain places and at certain times where it is scarce it takes on a value, is in many places so abundant that it falls in the category of free goods. The same is true at certain times and places of firewood, fruits, and other things, when there chances to be a surplus, relative to the desires of men.
In such cases both the portions which are used and the other portions are without value—are free goods. There is always something puzzling about this as one begins to think about it. It seems unreasonable to say that diamonds, laces, cigarettes, have value, and air and water have not. But the explanation is simple. Tho we must have air to live, and tho every breath we draw is to supply this need, our attention need not ordinarily be given to the matter of the supply of air at all.
So long as it is present in abundance, the desire for it has no chance to rise to noticeable intensity, Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] and remains constantly at the zero point. Men do not concern themselves about that which they have in superfluity—unless indeed the excess causes them some discomfort.
It is well that they do not, for a wise direction of effort can take place only when men think mainly of the things that are lacking and direct their efforts toward securing them. Most kinds of enjoyable things are constantly being used up before every use dependent on them can be made. Our stocks of such things become therefore the objects of our choice. We strive to use them with some care and attention.
Such goods are called economic goods, being the goods which have value and therefore must be economized. As we have already seen, a certain thing may be a free good at one time because of its abundance and at another time it may be an economic good because of its scarcity. Beyond the boundary of economic goods and of free goods there lies an anti-economic environment, the harmful: destructive lightning, floods, poisons, vermin, pests of locusts, disease-breeding swamps, wild beasts, human enemies, and many other ills of earth.
Pure air may come as a tornado, fire may destroy our dwelling, growing woods may cover the fields needed for tillage, iron may crush the foot or cut the hand. It will be noticed that the things that are valued, the things that we call economic goods, are things that have a relation to the choices or desires of men. In many cases they may be so, but what shall we say of the pistol which the highwayman points at his victim, or of the poison with which the lunatic kills his friend, or of the opium for which the miserable victim would give his birthright, or of the whisky which is ruining the happiness of the drinker and of his family?
The economist, however, must not overlook the injurious results of such uses, and in his final judgments on economic welfare must endeavor to see a larger good than that of the moment and of the individual desire. This is in accord with usage as well in biology for example, in discussing the utility of certain organs as in the moral sciences for example, in studying the utility of certain institutions.
We should beware of the very frequent confusion of the terms value and utility, and throughout we shall connect the idea of value with choice and not with utility. Later, in considering the more lasting effects that wealth has, either upon the individual or upon society, utility has its place. We have already seen that there is in our desires for things an impulsive or an instinctive element. But with our growth through childhood into maturity, experience accumulates, and our choices among things and our desires for things come to have in them elements of memory, calculation, imagination, and reason.
We desire an article of food partially because we have already tasted it and imagination recalls the sensation which it gave us. We desire a plow because our reasoning powers tell us that the plow will assist us in growing the crop which is to serve as food. So as Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] we develop intellectually it comes about that judgment dominates our desires to a very considerable degree. Now if we have a desire for a thing, and succeed in securing it, a change takes place in our desire.
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This change we call gratification. Or if the desire is completely met, we speak of the change as the satisfaction of the desire. It is the sensation feeling which accompanies the getting of the thing desired. Desire is a mental reaching out for things. The fulfilment of desire involves the securing of the objects of desire, and this brings us to the idea of income. We find the term used in a number of different senses. Income may consist of certain concrete goods which come in to a person during a given period—such as bread, butter, meat, clothing, etc. It is likely to Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] be used to purchase all sorts of concrete goods—such as food and clothing—which are the real objects of desire.
However, in the commercial world, and in ordinary life, we are very much in the habit of expressing income as a sum of money accruing within a period. This is perhaps the sense in which the term is most frequently used. Many choices made by men are not directed to securing material objects. It is difficult to estimate such things in monetary terms or in terms of other concrete goods, and often the attempt to do so is not made. For we are dealing here with things which are in the realm of feeling. We may call them psychic income, and we may define the term psychic income as desirable results produced in the realm of feeling by valuable objects or by valuable changes in the environment which accrue to or affect an economic subject within a given period.
We have here reached something fundamental in our analysis. It is not merely that many items of income take this form and this form only—not being embodied in any tangible shape. But concrete, tangible objects monetary or non-monetary , are regarded as income, as something desirable, just because their ultimate effect is to bring about such changes in the realm of feeling as we are now discussing. The food that we eat banishes the sensation of hunger. Clothing protects us from the cold, gives the feeling of being well-dressed, etc.
The musical instrument creates, through our nerves of hearing, the pleasurable feelings of harmony.
The beautiful picture, the automobile, the pleasure yacht—all the many kinds of concrete goods which man desires—are objects of desire to him because of their capacity to affect the sensory system, Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] and, through that, his mental life. It is clear, therefore, that any adequate enumeration of the group of things which we call income must take careful account of these psychic elements.
A man will work for a certain salary in an occupation that he enjoys who might refuse several times the amount in a less enjoyable or actually disagreeable line of work. A family may choose to live in a small house in a particular neighborhood, rather than in a larger house with greater physical comforts in a less attractive neighborhood.
A girl who can live at home may accept what would otherwise be an inadequate wage—an income which would not support her if she lived elsewhere. It may be seen that anticipated total psychic income is what motivates our economic activity—at least as far as this activity is determined by conscious purpose. There are men holding public office to whom the salary received is an insignificant consideration. They are paid largely in public esteem, or in their own consciousness of duty well performed.
And in as far as men work for material rewards—money or goods—their ultimate ends are not material. They are in the realm of the psychic. Except to the miser, money is not an end in itself if it is even in that case. Nor are stocks and bonds, or real estate, or even clothing and food, ends in themselves. The magnitude of the stream of psychic income depends in large measure on the natural temperament, on acquired habits of life and thought, and on the state of health of the individual.
One person gets delight from small things; another is miserable in the midst of luxury. In the richest man and wife in Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] Switzerland committed suicide together because they felt that they had nothing to live for; whereas the mass of the hardworking Swiss with their scanty material incomes, are as joyous and contented as any people in the world. Nothing can equalize these subjective differences between individuals, but each individual, in his choice, compares things with reference to their psychic income-value to himself; he does not judge them merely by their physical or by their pecuniary measurements.
But when in moralizing strain, we say that the source of happiness is within oneself, we speak within limits. Desire-streams and income-streams. Hunger, tho fully satisfied, returns again. One circus does not last the boy a lifetime. New clothing quickly becomes old. We weather one storm only to feel an equal need of shelter from the next. To meet this series of desires and wants we require a pretty regular flow of goods and services. If any one of these supplies fails, the traveler suffers the pangs of hunger, and if two or three supplies are at one point, they do not serve his needs so well as if distributed along the way.
This almost unbroken inflow of certain kinds of goods is a necessity of existence. The savage dimly understands this need.
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Even the birds and the beasts adjust their lives to it by toil and by travel. The spring and autumn migrations to new feeding grounds are the attempts of the bird to secure this income. The ant, the bee, and the squirrel anticipate, and work to fill their storehouses against the days of need. Man has to take thought to provide the much more complex series of goods upon which his desires are directed.
Goods of direct, present use. These goods are of Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] many kinds, but we may give our first attention to the goods of present, direct use to secure psychic income. Such is food to the primitive man, a skin to wear over his shoulders, a club to defend himself against his enemies. Such, to-day, is the cup of coffee on the table, the fire on the hearth, the furniture, the house, the land used for playground, tennis court, park, the clothing we wear, and countless other objects in daily use.
Thus in every case that a desire is gratified, whether of child or of man, of poor or of rich, the relationship may be traced between psychic income and goods of direct use. Warmth is to be had by the use of clothing, shelter, and fire; light is given by the candle, the lamp, and the electric light. These goods of present, direct use are the first and almost the only concern of the animal, of the child, or of the savage. To man in developed economic conditions these goods are still the immediate objective conditions to the creation of his psychic income. Directness of use is that quality a good has of yielding to its possessor its ultimate economic use psychic income without the physical intervention of any other agent between itself and the user.
When these uses and services produce psychic income directly without the aid of any intervening agent , they are direct uses. Quality, a reflection of desire. Substitution of goods. The principle of substitution. Substitution of like and of unlike goods. Complementary goods. Changes of desires and of valuations. Effect of repeated stimuli on our feelings. Different quantities and corresponding desires. Stock of homogeneous units: principle of indifference. Diagram of marginal valuation. The paradox of value. View more info. Publisher: Ash-Tree Press: Canada.
Reprint of the author's collection: new eight-page introduction by Barbara Roden. This is no Condition: Fine copy in an almost fine dustjacket, just a touch of fading to the white spine panel. Contains all the stories from the Arkham House edition of which itself had four additional stories to the earlier British edition of , plus three extra stories originally published in Weird Tales and which have never been collected with his weird fiction: 13 page introduction by Barbara Roden.
By: Walker, Barbara G. Publisher: HarperCollins: NY. Collection of 28 fairy stories, ''evamped, retold and infused with new life''. He has been handpicked to participate in a specialized experiment in mass psychology and a unique form of Living History: ''Spend two weeks with three hundred other men in an authentic replica of a World War Two German POW Camp!
By: Walker, Dale L. Publisher: Tor: NY. Foreword by Elmer Kelton. By: Walker, Joe Simpson. Publisher: Chomu Press: UK. Jeanette Hesketh is a troubled girl. Excluded from school after a mental breakdown, she has only one confidante: Mark Child, an attractive but dangerous young man. Their strange relationship is hidden from all around them, and Jeanette must find her way through a maze of secrets and betrayal, desires and disillusionment, fictions and confession, as she struggles for her sanity in a world of fear and forbidden longings.
Family mystery. Black farce. Publisher: Harvill Press: London. Publisher: Fingal Books: Dublin. Publisher: The Swan Press: Tacoma. This new edition adds ''Extract Drom An Unpublished Novel'', plus the page play ''Alarm Among The Clerks'', first staged in and now in print for the first time. Limited to hardcover copies. Sf novel: originally published in The information the Professor is receiving has made him rich, but has also made him a powerful enemy, who will stop at nothing to use the Professor's discovery to his own ends.
Publisher: Gnome Press: NY. SF novel, expanded from the story ''Accidental Flight'' in the a April issue of Galaxy magazine. Worlds in Balance assembles two typical stories, but he never put together a full collection of his work, and left the field around Publisher: Gollancz: London. SF novel. Publisher: Peter Davies: London. What Has Four Wheels and Flies? Publisher: Privately printed.
Publisher: Gerald Duckworth: London. Publisher: Abelard-Schuman: London. Condition: Fine copy in a fine dustjacket but for small chip and creasing to rear top corner tip. SF juvenile. An uncommon UK hardcover. By: Walton, Evangeline. Publisher: Timescape Books: NY. Historical fantasy of Theseus and the Amazons. The language is clear, businesslike, and rises to heights at the climaxes. The story hews to it's thrilling tragic line, avoiding subplots and mere chronicle.
This is certainly the best fictional depiction of the Amazons that I've ever encountered. Publisher: Sidecar Preservation Society. Edited by D. Olsen: 48 pages. Fiction, non-fiction, poetry. Their motives are unclear, but they like to meddle in human affairs. Osmo, one of the central characters, is a young proclaimer. Prior to the start of the novel the young Osmo confronted the sadistic proclaimer tyrant Tycho Cammon and turned him tos tone.
Osmo gains the enmity of the militant proclaimer Juke and his one-eyed sister Eyeno.
The resulting child is fast-growing and appears to have proclaimerlike powers. Meanwhile, some people begin to suspect that the Mana force is emanating from an Ukko child which is buried somewhere on the planet and feeding on the stories and the drama of the world beneath which it is gestating. Most of the characters, it seems, are seeking something. Lucky is seeking her true self, which she believes is still being held by the Ukko.
Her husband Bertel is seeking death. Osmo is seeking immortality, as is Minkie, the lecherous young lord. The immortal Lord Beck is seeking a way of connecting with his long-dead wife Anna. Eyeno is seeking a new eye, and her brother Juke is seeking victory over Osmo for reasons unknown. Watching over all are the cat-eared green-scaled cuckoos that fly about the realm carrying gossip and news. Those with some knowledge of Scandinavian mythology may recognise some of the elements being described here, since Watson has based this wonderful work on the Finnish saga of The Kalevala, something which also provided inspiration for novels by Emil Petaja and for Tolkien's 'Silmarillion' View 1 comment.
Feb 14, Alien rated it it was ok Shelves: quit-reading. I was a bit sad when I quit this book after reading the first half. I wanted to know how the story continues. But unfortunately reading it page after page was no fun at all. It was like swimming against the current. I really dislike the style. Yes, lots and lots of details. On the other hand after reading half of one book, you are still left in the dark about important stuff like: what ist that "mana", what are the Ukko?
Well, I was a bit sad when I quit this book after reading the first half. Well, for me the book was just no fun. Bogart rated it liked it Jul 15, Evitcelfer rated it it was ok Jan 20, Thetechyguy rated it really liked it Nov 10, Viki Holmes rated it it was amazing Dec 30, Adi rated it it was amazing Jul 14, Terry rated it liked it Jan 22, Patrick rated it really liked it Aug 31, Grimalkin rated it really liked it Nov 30, Ian rated it liked it Jun 11, Octombrie rated it liked it Feb 10, Purblind rated it really liked it Nov 29, Alex Baxter rated it liked it May 13, Adrian Dumitru rated it it was ok Oct 19,