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We should be able to deploy each micro frontend with very little thought given to the current state of other codebases or pipelines. It shouldn't matter if the old monolith is on a fixed, manual, quarterly release cycle, or if the team next door has pushed a half-finished or broken feature into their master branch. If a given micro frontend is ready to go to production, it should be able to do so, and that decision should be up to the team who build and maintain it.

As a higher-order benefit of decoupling both our codebases and our release cycles, we get a long way towards having fully independent teams, who can own a section of a product from ideation through to production and beyond. Teams can have full ownership of everything they need to deliver value to customers, which enables them to move quickly and effectively.

For this to work, our teams need to be formed around vertical slices of business functionality, rather than around technical capabilities. An easy way to do this is to carve up the product based on what end users will see, so each micro frontend encapsulates a single page of the application, and is owned end-to-end by a single team. In short, micro frontends are all about slicing up big and scary things into smaller, more manageable pieces, and then being explicit about the dependencies between them. Our technology choices, our codebases, our teams, and our release processes should all be able to operate and evolve independently of each other, without excessive coordination.

Imagine a website where customers can order food for delivery. On the surface it's a fairly simple concept, but there's a surprising amount of detail if you want to do it well:. Figure 4: A food delivery website may have several reasonably complex pages. There is enough complexity in each page that we could easily justify a dedicated team for each one, and each of those teams should be able to work on their page independently of all the other teams.

They should be able to develop, test, deploy, and maintain their code without worrying about conflicts or coordination with other teams. Our customers, however, should still see a single, seamless website. Throughout the rest of this article, we'll be using this example application wherever we need example code or scenarios.

Given the fairly loose definition above, there are many approaches that could reasonably be called micro frontends. In this section we'll show some examples and discuss their tradeoffs. There is a fairly natural architecture that emerges across all of the approaches - generally there is a micro frontend for each page in the application, and there is a single container application , which:. Figure 5: You can usually derive your architecture from the visual structure of the page.

We start with a decidedly un-novel approach to frontend development - rendering HTML on the server out of multiple templates or fragments. We have an index. This is fairly standard server-side composition. The reason we could justifiably call this micro frontends is that we've split up our code in such a way that each piece represents a self-contained domain concept that can be delivered by an independent team. What's not shown here is how those various HTML files end up on the web server, but the assumption is that they each have their own deployment pipeline, which allows us to deploy changes to one page without affecting or thinking about any other page.

For even greater independence, there could be a separate server responsible for rendering and serving each micro frontend, with one server out the front that makes requests to the others. With careful caching of responses, this could be done without impacting latency.

Figure 6: Each of these servers can be built and deployed to independently.

Bridging Now and Next

This example shows how micro frontends is not necessarily a new technique, and does not have to be complicated. As long as we're careful about how our design decisions affect the autonomy of our codebases and our teams, we can achieve many of the same benefits regardless of our tech stack. One approach that we sometimes see is to publish each micro frontend as a package, and have the container application include them all as library dependencies. Here is how the container's package.

At first this seems to make sense. It produces a single deployable Javascript bundle, as is usual, allowing us to de-duplicate common dependencies from our various applications. However, this approach means that we have to re-compile and release every single micro frontend in order to release a change to any individual part of the product. Just as with microservices, we've seen enough pain caused by such a lockstep release process that we would recommend strongly against this kind of approach to micro frontends.

Having gone to all of the trouble of dividing our application into discrete codebases that can be developed and tested independently, let's not re-introduce all of that coupling at the release stage. We should find a way to integrate our micro frontends at run-time, rather than at build-time. One of the simplest approaches to composing applications together in the browser is the humble iframe.

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By their nature, iframes make it easy to build a page out of independent sub-pages. They also offer a good degree of isolation in terms of styling and global variables not interfering with each other. Just as with the server-side includes option , building a page out of iframes is not a new technique and perhaps does not seem that exciting.

But if we revisit the chief benefits of micro frontends listed earlier , iframes mostly fit the bill, as long as we're careful about how we slice up the application and structure our teams. We often see a lot of reluctance to choose iframes. The easy isolation mentioned above does tend to make them less flexible than other options. It can be difficult to build integrations between different parts of the application, so they make routing, history, and deep-linking more complicated, and they present some extra challenges to making your page fully responsive. The next approach that we'll describe is probably the most flexible one, and the one that we see teams adopting most frequently.

The container application then determines which micro frontend should be mounted, and calls the relevant function to tell a micro frontend when and where to render itself. The above is obviously a primitive example, but it demonstrates the basic technique. Unlike with build-time integration, we can deploy each of the bundle. And unlike with iframes, we have full flexibility to build integrations between our micro frontends however we like. We could extend the above code in many ways, for example to only download each JavaScript bundle as needed, or to pass data in and out when rendering a micro frontend.

The flexibility of this approach, combined with the independent deployability, makes it our default choice, and the one that we've seen in the wild most often. We'll explore it in more detail when we get into the full example. One variation to the previous approach is for each micro frontend to define an HTML custom element for the container to instantiate, instead of defining a global function for the container to call. The end result here is quite similar to the previous example, the main difference being that you are opting in to doing things 'the web component way'.

If you like the web component spec, and you like the idea of using capabilities that the browser provides, then this is a good option. If you prefer to define your own interface between the container application and micro frontends, then you might prefer the previous example instead.

CSS as a language is inherently global, inheriting, and cascading, traditionally with no module system, namespacing or encapsulation. Some of those features do exist now, but browser support is often lacking. In a micro frontends landscape, many of these problems are exacerbated.

THE PROBLEM

This is not a new problem, but it's made worse by the fact that these selectors were written by different teams at different times, and the code is probably split across separate repositories, making it more difficult to discover. Over the years, many approaches have been invented to make CSS more manageable. Some choose to use a strict naming convention, such as BEM , to ensure selectors only apply where intended. Others, preferring not to rely on developer discipline alone, use a pre-processor such as SASS , whose selector nesting can be used as a form of namespacing.

A newer approach is to apply all styles programatically with CSS modules or one of the various CSS-in-JS libraries, which ensures that styles are directly applied only in the places the developer intends. Or for a more platform-based approach, shadow DOM also offers style isolation. The approach that you pick does not matter all that much, as long as you find a way to ensure that developers can write their styles independently of each other, and have confidence that their code will behave predictably when composed together into a single application.

We mentioned above that visual consistency across micro frontends is important, and one approach to this is to develop a library of shared, re-usable UI components. In general we believe that this a good idea, although it is difficult to do well. The main benefits of creating such a library are reduced effort through re-use of code, and visual consistency. In addition, your component library can serve as a living styleguide, and it can be a great point of collaboration between developers and designers.


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One of the easiest things to get wrong is to create too many of these components, too early. It is tempting to create a Foundation Framework , with all of the common visuals that will be needed across all applications. However, experience tells us that it's difficult, if not impossible, to guess what the components' APIs should be before you have real-world usage of them, which results in a lot of churn in the early life of a component.

For that reason, we prefer to let teams create their own components within their codebases as they need them, even if that causes some duplication initially. Allow the patterns to emerge naturally, and once the component's API has become obvious, you can harvest the duplicate code into a shared library and be confident that you have something proven. We can also share more complex components which might contain a significant amount of UI logic, such as an auto-completing, drop-down search field. Or a sortable, filterable, paginated table. However, be careful to ensure that your shared components contain only UI logic, and no business or domain logic.

When domain logic is put into a shared library it creates a high degree of coupling across applications, and increases the difficulty of change. Such domain modelling and business logic belongs in the application code of the micro frontends, rather than in a shared library. As with any shared internal library, there are some tricky questions around its ownership and governance. It can quickly become a hodge-podge of inconsistent code with no clear conventions or technical vision. At the other extreme, if development of the shared library is completely centralised, there will be a big disconnect between the people who create the components and the people who consume them.

The best models that we've seen are ones where anyone can contribute to the library, but there is a custodian a person or a team who is responsible for ensuring the quality, consistency, and validity of those contributions. The job of maintaining the shared library requires strong technical skills, but also the people skills necessary to cultivate collaboration across many teams.

One of the most common questions regarding micro frontends is how to let them talk to each other. In general, we recommend having them communicate as little as possible, as it often reintroduces the sort of inappropriate coupling that we're seeking to avoid in the first place.


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That said, some level of cross-app communication is often needed. Custom events allow micro frontends to communicate indirectly, which is a good way to minimise direct coupling, though it does make it harder to determine and enforce the contract that exists between micro frontends. Alternatively, the React model of passing callbacks and data downwards in this case downwards from the container application to the micro frontends is also a good solution that makes the contract more explicit.

A third alternative is to use the address bar as a communication mechanism, which we'll explore in more detail later. Whatever approach we choose, we want our micro frontends to communicate by sending messages or events to each other, and avoid having any shared state. Just like sharing a database across microservices, as soon as we share our data structures and domain models, we create massive amounts of coupling, and it becomes extremely difficult to make changes.

As with styling, there are several different approaches that can work well here. The most important thing is to think long and hard about what sort of coupling you're introducing, and how you'll maintain that contract over time. Just as with integration between microservices, you won't be able to make breaking changes to your integrations without having a coordinated upgrade process across different applications and teams.

You should also think about how you'll automatically verify that the integration does not break. Functional testing is one approach, but we prefer to limit the number of functional tests we write due to the cost of implementing and maintaining them. Alternatively you could implement some form of consumer-driven contracts , so that each micro frontend can specify what it requires of other micro frontends, without needing to actually integrate and run them all in a browser together.

If we have separate teams working independently on frontend applications, what about backend development? We believe strongly in the value of full-stack teams, who own their application's development from visual code all the way through to API development, and database and infrastructure code. One pattern that helps here is the BFF pattern, where each frontend application has a corresponding backend whose purpose is solely to serve the needs of that frontend. While the BFF pattern might originally have meant dedicated backends for each frontend channel web, mobile, etc , it can easily be extended to mean a backend for each micro frontend.

There are a lot of variables to account for here. The BFF might be self contained with its own business logic and database, or it might just be an aggregator of downstream services. If there are downstream services, it may or may not make sense for the team that owns the micro frontend and its BFF, to also own some of those services. The guiding principle here is that the team building a particular micro frontend shouldn't have to wait for other teams to build things for them.

So if every new feature added to a micro frontend also requires backend changes, that's a strong case for a BFF, owned by the same team. Another common question is, how should the user of a micro frontend application be authenticated and authorised with the server? Obviously our customers should only have to authenticate themselves once, so auth usually falls firmly in the category of cross-cutting concerns that should be owned by the container application. The container probably has some sort of login form, through which we obtain some sort of token.

That token would be owned by the container, and can be injected into each micro frontend on initialisation. Finally, the micro frontend can send the token with any request that it makes to the server, and the server can do whatever validation is required. We don't see much difference between monolithic frontends and micro frontends when it comes to testing. In general, whatever strategies you are using to test a monolithic frontend can be reproduced across each individual micro frontend. That is, each micro frontend should have its own comprehensive suite of automated tests that ensure the quality and correctness of the code.

The obvious gap would then be integration testing of the various micro frontends with the container application. By that we mean, use unit tests to cover your low-level business logic and rendering logic, and then use functional tests just to validate that the page is assembled correctly. For example, you might load up the fully-integrated application at a particular URL, and assert that the hard-coded title of the relevant micro frontend is present on the page. If there are user journeys that span across micro frontends, then you could use functional testing to cover those, but keep the functional tests focussed on validating the integration of the frontends, and not the internal business logic of each micro frontend, which should have already been covered by unit tests.

As mentioned above, consumer-driven contracts can help to directly specify the interactions that occur between micro frontends without the flakiness of integration environments and functional testing. Most of the rest of this article will be a detailed explanation of just one way that our example application can be implemented. We'll focus mostly on how the container application and the micro frontends integrate together using JavaScript , as that's probably the most interesting and complex part.

Figure 8: The 'browse' landing page of the full micro frontends demo application. The demo is all built using React. Micro frontends can be implemented with with many different tools or frameworks.

Why we are calling it a ‘curry’?

We chose React here because of its popularity and because of our own familiarity with it. We'll start with the container , as it's the entry point for our customers. Let's see what we can learn about it from its package. From the dependencies on react and react-scripts , we can conclude that it's a React. More interesting is what's not there: any mention of the micro frontends that we're going to compose together to form our final application.

If we were to specify them here as library dependencies, we'd be heading down the path of build-time integration, which as mentioned previously tends to cause problematic coupling in our release cycles. To see how we select and display a micro frontend, let's look at App. We use React Router to match the current URL against a predefined list of routes, and render a corresponding component:.

The Random component is not that interesting - it just redirects the page to a randomly selected restaurant URL. The Browse and Restaurant components look like this:. In both cases, we render a MicroFrontend component. Aside from the history object which will become important later , we specify the unique name of the application, and the host from which its bundle can be downloaded.

Having selected a micro frontend in App. This is not the entire class, we'll be seeing more of its methods soon. When rendering, all we do is put a container element on the page, with an ID that's unique to the micro frontend. This is where we'll tell our micro frontend to render itself. We use React's componentDidMount as the trigger for downloading and mounting the micro frontend:. First we check if the relevant script, which has a unique ID, has already been downloaded, in which case we can just render it immediately.

If not, we fetch the asset-manifest. Once we've set the script's URL, all that's left is to attach it to the document, with an onload handler that renders the micro frontend:. In the above code we're calling a global function called something like window. The signature of this global function is the key contract between the container application and the micro frontends.

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